T cells are a type of white blood cell, and the scientific name for white blood cells is lymphocytes. T Lymphocytes are lucrative for giving the strength to your immune system to fight germs, protect you from different diseases, and cure cancer. There are two major types of T-lymphocytes: Cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells, but memory cells are also a type of T Lymphocytes. T lymphocytes kill the infected cells, and you should consult with the best Cancer doctor in Punjab to know more about it and proper screening.
What is the definition of T lymphocytes?
T Lymphocytes are components of the immune system. It involves destroying infected host cells, producing cytokines, and activating other immune cells. These cells regulate the immune response. Lymphocytes have a central role in the response of the immune system. T-cell receptors on the surface of cells distinguish them from other types of lymphocytes. There are three types of T-lymphocytes: Cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells and memory cells.
Types of Lymphocytes
- Cytotoxic T-Cell: Cytotoxic T-cells are also called CD8+ T cells. Attacking and destroying the infected and cancerous cells is the main function of CD8+ cells. The presence of antigens on the surface of the infected cells is recognized by Cytotoxic T-cells. The viruses, intracellular bacteria, and cancer cells are the targets of CD8+ T cells. CD8+ T cells recognize the antigen present on the surface of the infected cells by the T-cell receptor. The use of perforin and granzymes to induce apoptosis in target cells. It gets activated when its TCR binds to an antigen-MHC complex on the surface of an infected cell.
- Helper T-cells: Another name for helper T-cells is CD4+ T cells. It assists and regulates the response of the immune system. It does not kill the cancerous cells directly. The helper T-cells interact with antigen-presenting cells that are helpful for coordinating the immune response. It also recognizes the presence of Macrophages and dendritic cells like antigens. It releases cytokines, which are helpful for stimulating the other immune cells and enhancing the overall immune response. CD4+ T cells get activated when their TCR recognizes antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells.
- Memory T cells: The key role of memory cells is rendering memory of the immune system against antigens. It was encountered before the rendering. Mainly CD8+ or CD4+ cells are a part of memory T cells. If there is an infection, then these cells are formed. These cells are long-lived and specific to antigens. These cells are important as they can immediately expand to significant numbers of effector T cells on exposure in the future to the antigen. They have a low threshold for activation.
How do T lymphocytes kill cancerous cells?
T lymphocytes are also known as T cells, and they play a crucial role in the defense of cancerous cells. There are different ways in which the T cells eliminate the cancer cells.
- Cytotoxic T Cells (CTLs): These T cells are particularly effective in directly killing cancer cells. CTLs recognize specific antigens on the surface of cancer cells. Once activated, CTLs release cytotoxic molecules, such as perforin and granzymes, which create pores in the cancer cell’s membrane, leading to cell death.
- Inducing Apoptosis: T cells can trigger apoptosis, a programmed cell death, in cancer cells. It controls an orderly process that helps eliminate abnormal or damaged cells, including cancerous ones. T cells release signaling molecules that prompt the cancer cells to undergo apoptosis.
- Secreting Cytokines: Cytokines are released by the T cells. This chemical gives you a signaling protein that regulates immune responses. Interferon cytokines and tumor necrosis factors have anti-cancer properties. They can hold back the growth of cancer cells and promote their destruction.
- Recruiting Other Immune Cells: T cells recruit other immune cells for the tumor site. It includes macrophages and natural killer cells, and It further leads to the destruction of cancer cells.
- Memory T Cells: After encountering cancer cells, some T cells become memory T cells. These cells remember the specific cancer antigens, providing a faster and more robust response upon re-exposure to the same cancer cells. This memory response enhances the immune system’s ability to eliminate cancer.
T- Lymphocyte cells can kill the cancerous cells to some extent. When the T lymphocytes are unable to kill the cancerous cells, then people see the symptoms of cancer, and for the treatment of cancer, visit the best Cancer Hospital in Ludhiana, Dr. Bindra’s super specialty clinics.